Do Brazilians sleep more than the Chinese? Do Saudi Arabians rise earlier than Danes? Do Spaniards stay out as late as we think?

Who sleeps the most? …and the least? What does this tell us about the way we live?

How are our sleep patterns changing?

We developed the first global estimates of sleep patterns across 645 cities over a seven year period by combining our data with the simple assumption that people turn on their internet-enabled devices at the beginning of their day and switch them off at the end of itWith an average error of just 11 minutes when compared with traditional time-use survey data, our novel approach is highly reliable and exceptionally comprehensive.

For more information, download our paper.

Key Findings

  • There is wide variation in global sleep patterns:
    • Residents of US cities obtain 1h15m less sleep than their Mexican counterparts.
    • Compared to North America, European residents obtain approx. 25m more sleep, on average.
    • Japanese obtain more than 1h40m less sleep than their South Korean neighbours.
  • Major cities tend to have longer sleeping times than surrounding satellite cities.
  • A comparison of estimated sleep duration aggregated at the UN regional scale over time suggests our sleep patterns might be converging: while North America’s sleep duration has remained largely static over the seven year period, Europe’s sleep duration has declined, and East Asian sleep duration has grown, reducing regional differences in sleep duration
Sleep activity, global predictions
Estimating global sleep from Internet Activity and machine learning tools